A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACHES ON FACTORS OF SHOPPING MALL ATTRACTIVENESS: Methodology

A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACHES ON FACTORS OF SHOPPING MALL ATTRACTIVENESS: MethodologyA mall’s atmosphere, diversity, and involvement by consumers can be considered as excitements. According to the research done by Sirpal and Peng, it states that a shopping mall with a food court will have an increase in the percentage of consumers who visits the mall for the first time. The environmental factor in a shopping mall has various effects on excitability with desire to stay in that particular mall. Shaked stated that there are four types of user who visit a shopping mall, namely a) Disloyal, consumer who does not stick to one mall and rarely visits a shopping mall, b) Minimalists, consumer who possesses specific tasks, c) Family Bonders, consumer who gives priority to family and d) Mall Enthusiasts, the shopping mall lover. There is also a noticeable difference between a working women and a housewife in evaluating their shopping experience. Higher expectations of working women in the mall’s employees may cause them to consider employee behavior to be more crucial in evaluating their shopping experience. This may have been caused by higher expectations of the working women. Housewives on the other hand, are more anxious about lack of accessibility in evaluating their shopping experiences. Greg et al. said happy or sad music would influence consumers’ purpose directly while shopping, and music that is liked or disliked is marginally important. They also found out that when both happy and liked music is played, the consumers intend to purchase more from that particular shop. Herrington and Capella said music can create one distinctive image and develop a good position in market. Apart from music, consumers evaluated a shopping mall based on its location (whether it is located in a central business district or not), unique design or architecture, entertainment (such as movie theater and playground), and presence of attractive restaurants.
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A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACHES ON FACTORS OF SHOPPING MALL ATTRACTIVENESS: Shopping mall attractiveness

Ismail states that the management should provide comfort to its consumers in regard to the shopping mall attractiveness. Among of the factors that contribute to a shopping mall’s attractiveness are: having an adequate amount of parking spaces, providing comfortable places for consumers to relax and have a rest, having a decent security service, as well as taking care of the cleanliness of the mall. Dennis et al. (2002a) showed that the concept of branding technique that is used in measuring brand image can also be applied towards a shopping mall. This technique may determine consumers’ satisfaction towards the shopping mall, as well as bring a commercial success towards it.
According to Alessandro and Maria, entertainment orientation should be based on four dimensions which are:
1)    the number of entertainment facilities offered
2)    the space used for entertainment facilities as a proportion of the total gross leasable area of the mall
3)    theproportion of full-time and part-time employees involved in entertainment services
4) the proportion of consumers who visit the shopping mall outside the opening hours of the stores (that is, visitors who use only entertainment facilities).
Entertainment facilities also endorsed by Bloch et al. that a shopping mall is a spot not only for shopping, but in fact, it is also used for other activities such as entertainment.According to Wong and Yu, one of the key factors to determine a shopping mall’s success is consumers’ perceptions on the store image of the mall.
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A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACHES ON FACTORS OF SHOPPING MALL ATTRACTIVENESS: INTRODUCTION

A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACHES ON FACTORS OF SHOPPING MALL ATTRACTIVENESS: INTRODUCTIONWith the rapid economic growth in Asian countries, consumer behavior also tends to change along with the economic prosperity. People tend to seek for a convenient, comfortable and pleasant shopping environment. Therefore, there is an increasingly high demand for shopping malls and the transformation of their environment.
Ahmed et al. believes that shopping mall is a place to socialize and to have leisure. There are many kinds of reasons for consumers to visit shopping malls – these include to go shopping, to dine, to have entertainment, to relax and to spend time with friends. According to Terblanche, shops, children’s play areas, interactive entertainment, cinemas, restaurants, food courts, socializing areas, promotional areas and relaxation areas have now become a major component in a shopping mall.
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Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Conclusion and Policy Implications

Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Conclusion and Policy ImplicationsMost of the empirical studies report that M3/GDP which measures the financial intermediary size has a positive, significant relationship with economic growth. Evidence in Table 3 shows that financial development proxied by broad money supply as a share of GDP is positively related to economic growth. Thus, our result is in line with the above-mentioned studies. The implication is that as the size of the financial intermediary sector of Botswana increases, economic growth is promoted. Table 4 shows that when M3/GDP is used to proxy financial development, supply-following hypothesis is confirmed. This suggests to us that financial development supports growth in Botswana via the expansion of the financial intermediary sector. Direct marketing

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Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Results

Table 1 reports the results of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillip-Perron (PP) unit root tests. The results indicate that all the variables are stationary at their 1st difference form. These results satisfy the condition for performing cointegration analysis. Johansen Cointegration test is, therefore, performed. Lag length of VAR model is selected at 3 on the basis of Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Schwarz criterion, Final Prediction Error and Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion. The results are reported in Table 2. As can be observed, there are four cointegrating relationships among the five variables (LCPS, LGDPPC, LGS, LM3, and LOPEN) in our model. Table 3 provides the results of the regression analysis. The adjusted R2 is 0.97, indicating a tight fit. The significance of the F-Statistic reported in Table 3 means that the explanatory variables jointly and significantly explain the dependent variable. The Durbin-Watson Test Statistic of 2.39 suggests that there is no autocorrelation in the sample. The ARCH test also suggests that there is no serial correlation in the data. The results of these diagnostic tests suggest appropriateness of our model. Bank Singapore’s graduates

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Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Method

Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? MethodChukwu and Agu report from Nigeria that evidence exists in support of demand-following hypothesis in Nigeria when financial depth is proxied by banking sector’s private sector credit and real broad money supply and supply-leading hypothesis when loan deposit ratio and bank deposit liabilities are used as proxies for financial depth. Enisan and Olufisayo also examine the finance-growth nexus in Nigeria with focus on the stock market and demonstrate that there is weak evidence in support of demand-following hypothesis using market size as indicator of stock market development. Ndako also analyzes the finance-growth nexus in Nigeria and reports that there is a unidirectional causality from financial development to economic growth (supply-leading) when bank credit to the private sector (LBCP) is used as a measure of financial development and a bidirectional relationship between financial development and economic growth when domestic credit to the private sector (LDCP) and bank deposit liabilities (LBDL) are used to proxy financial development.
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Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Literature Review

The finance-growth nexus has received some attention in Africa albeit inconclusive results. Agbetsiafa employs data from eight Sub-Saharan countries (Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, and Zambia) to investigate the finance-growth nexus and reports that financial development and economic growth are cointegrated in the long run. In terms of direction of causality, the study reports that there is mostly a unidirectional causality running from financial development to economic development in Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, and Zambia. Different measures of financial development produce a bi-directional causality in Kenya, Zambia, Zambia, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, and Togo. Ndebbio examines financial deepening, economic growth and development for Sub-Saharan African countries and reports that a developed financial sector spurs overall growth of an economy. Esso also examines the finance-growth connection with focus on Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone and establishes a long-run relationship between the two variables. The study reveals that financial development precedes economic growth in Ghana and Mali, growth leads finance in Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone, and finance and growth cause each other in Cape Verde and Liberia.
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Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? Introduction

Does Finance Promote Growth In Botswana? IntroductionThe role of finance in economic growth has attracted a great deal of intellectual scrutiny. The theoretical postulation is that finance could catalyze economic growth if funds are allocated to entrepreneurs who have viable entrepreneurial ideas but lack the needed funds to pursue them. Empirically, an avalanche of studies has been done to investigate the relationship between finance and economic growth. Generally, the accumulating evidence kinks towards a significant relationship but the nature of the relationship as well as the direction of causality has remained the bone of contention. Whereas some studies have found a positive significant relationship between finance and growth, others have reported evidence of a negative significant relationship between financial development and economic growth. Regarding the direction of causality between finance and growth, three categories of findings are identifiable: supply-leading response group which posits that financial development leads to economic growth supported by notable studies such as Bittencourt; Levine et al.; and Choe and Moosa; demand-following group underpinned by studies such as Odhiambo; Zang and Kim; Liang and Teng; and Demetriades and Hussein which argues that growth leads to financial development; and bidirectional group grounded by the studies of Apergiset al.; Rousseau and Vuthipadadorn; Luintel and Khan; Akinboade; and Wood which submits that there is a bidirectional causality between financial development and economic growth. Payday Loans Online

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Different Strategic Types Operating in the Same Industry: Comparison

Different Strategic Types Operating in the Same Industry: ComparisonThe priorities of performance measures as ranked by the companies, presented in Table 1, does provide some surprises. In particular the ranking of the performance measures by company A, the defender, and company B the prospector are very similar with both selecting the ‘ Retaining or securing [a high] or [above average] liquidity and financial strength’ as their number one priority. This may explain the anomaly of company B, the prospector outperforming company A, the defender. Hambrick reported that in every type of environment that had been examined the defenders outperformed prospectors across all industries. Performance measures obtained from the financial reports of the companies indicate that company B, the prospector had the best results. The summarized details of the financial performance indicators are presented in Table 2. These ratios suggest that the performance, at least in the companies studied, was linked to the strategic type and the control system applied. Interestingly company B was found to have the most appropriate and successful approach to managing control in line with its strategic type and thus was able to improve performance. Retailing in rural

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Different Strategic Types Operating in the Same Industry: Company C – Analyser

The assistant general manager of company C had identified the company as being the analyser type, which attempts to maintain a stable line of products and/or services whilst maintaining a state of preparedness to be able to take advantage of new products or markets, preferring to be second-in with a more cost efficient product or service. Company C operated in a broad product market adopting an aggressive approach to seeking and developing both new products and new markets. The company was not content with operating as just an insurance provider and had diversified by providing reinsurance to other insurance companies as well as diversification into other areas outside the insurance industry. The company had adopted the strategy of aligning with financial institutions to achieve wider market penetration and relied on these financial institutions to recognise new developments in the products and services. The assistant general manager advised that this strategy had allowed the company to reduce costs in research and development and more importantly had all but removed the need for advertising.
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